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Teach Periodic Table of Elements
with ChemCaper

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Theory

Periodic Table of Elements

Today we’re taking a closer look at the Periodic Table of the Elements and continue playing ChemCaper.

Teacher Resources

This lesson is all about the Periodic Table of the Elements. Depending on how you approach the topic and use the content of this lesson, this can serve either as an introduction or refresher, depending on how well your students are acquainted with the topic.

  • Theory: This lesson features a look at the periodic table of elements.
  • Play: Students play the game and attempt to acquire new petticle cards and bond them.
  • Share & Discuss: This slide focuses on the students opening up and discussing their playing experience for both their benefit and yours.

Reading the Table

  • Each element occupies a single square in the table and has its own assigned number (the number of protons in a single atom of that element)
  • Vertical columns are different groups
  • Horizontal rows are different periods
  • Specific regions of the periodic table can be referred to as blocks in recognition of the sequence in which the electron shells of the elements are filled (pictured in the bottom image).

The Periodic Table.

Blocks.

Teacher Resources

This slide provides resources for teaching your students the periodic table of the elements. While virtually everyone knows what the table is, many might not actually know how the organization on the table works, or how to read it. On the next slide are useful sources for understanding the table. The next slide also includes a full-screen version of the table for your convenience. Below are also more elaborate definitions of groups and periods in the table.

Groups: “Elements in the same group tend to show patterns in atomic radius, ionization energy, and electronegativity. From top to bottom in a group, the atomic radii of the elements increase. Since there are more filled energy levels, valence electrons are found farther from the nucleus. From the top, each successive element has a lower ionization energy because it is easier to remove an electron since the atoms are less tightly bound. Similarly, a group has a top to bottom decrease in electronegativity due to an increasing distance between valence electrons and the nucleus.There are exceptions to these trends, however, an example of which occurs in group 11 where electronegativity increases farther down the group.” (source)

Periods: “Period is a horizontal row in the periodic table. Although groups generally have more significant periodic trends, there are regions where horizontal trends are more significant than vertical group trends, such as the f-block, where the lanthanides and actinides form two substantial horizontal series of elements.

Elements in the same period show trends in atomic radius, ionization energy, electron affinity, and electronegativity. Moving left to right across a period, atomic radius usually decreases. This occurs because each successive element has an added proton and electron, which causes the electron to be drawn closer to the nucleus.This decrease in atomic radius also causes the ionization energy to increase when moving from left to right across a period. The more tightly bound an element is, the more energy is required to remove an electron. Electronegativity increases in the same manner as ionization energy because of the pull exerted on the electrons by the nucleus. Electron affinity also shows a slight trend across a period. Metals (left side of a period) generally have a lower electron affinity than nonmetals (right side of a period), with the exception of the noble gases.” (source)

Image Source: The Periodic Table of the Elements, Wikimedia Commons.
Image Source: The Periodic Table Blocks, Wikimedia Commons.

The Periodic Table: A Closer Look

The Periodic Table.

Teacher Resources

Play

Lesson Goal

Bond at least 3 petticle cards. What elements do those petticles represent?
How many different petticles can you find? Where can you find more information on petticles?

Teacher Resources

The goal is now to explore petticles (in other words, elements) in ChemCaper. The students can find additional petticles either by buying them or receiving them as loot from battle. To bond petticles, they will need a certain merchant (this is covered in the tutorial).

You can let the students play until the last 10 minutes of the lesson. Leave this slide open for the duration of play.

Share & Discuss

Share & Discuss

  • What was most fun about the game?
  • Was there anything you didn’t understand?
  • What is your favorite petticle in the game in battle?

Teacher Resources

Use these questions to get the students to talk about the game and their experiences with it, preparing them to work on the tasks on the next slide.

Tasks after Playing

  • Think of 4 petticles in the game. Find them in the periodic table!
  • What kind of attributes do those petticles/elements have in the periodic table? What do they all mean?
Show Notes

The attributes in question are the element’s group, period, number and mass.

  • What do you think is happening when petticles bond?
Show Notes

There are three types of bonds (more on those in the next lesson). With covalent bonds, the electrons are shared, as demonstrated in the game.

Additional Tasks

  • Define what these mean in terms of the periodic table: period, group, block
  • What happens in a group as you go downward?
Show Notes

From top to bottom in a group, the atomic radii of the elements increase. Since there are more filled energy levels, valence electrons are found farther from the nucleus. From the top, each successive element has a lower ionization energy because it is easier to remove an electron since the atoms are less tightly bound. Similarly, a group has a top to bottom decrease in electronegativity due to an increasing distance between valence electrons and the nucleus.There are exceptions to these trends, however, an example of which occurs in group 11 where electronegativity increases farther down the group. (source)

  • What happens in a period when you go from left to right?
Show Notes

Moving left to right across a period, atomic radius usually decreases. This occurs because each successive element has an added proton and electron, which causes the electron to be drawn closer to the nucleus.This decrease in atomic radius also causes the ionization energy to increase when moving from left to right across a period. The more tightly bound an element is, the more energy is required to remove an electron. Electronegativity increases in the same manner as ionization energy because of the pull exerted on the electrons by the nucleus.Electron affinity also shows a slight trend across a period. Metals (left side of a period) generally have a lower electron affinity than nonmetals (right side of a period), with the exception of the noble gases. (source)